2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Important Preparation and Administration Instructions
- Mannitol Injection is for intravenous infusion preferably through a central venous catheter [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Description (11)].
- Prior to the administration of Mannitol Injection, evaluate renal, cardiac, and pulmonary status of the patient and correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
- Do not administer Mannitol Injection simultaneously with blood products or through the same administration set because of the possibility of pseduoagglutination or hemolysis. If it is essential that blood be given simultaneously, at least 20 mEq of sodium chloride should be added to each liter of mannitol solution to avoid pseudoagglutination.
- Do not transfer Mannitol Injection into polyvinylchloride (PVC) bags; a white flocculent precipitate may form from contact with PVC surfaces.
- Administer Mannitol Injection using an administration set with a filter to ensure against infusion of mannitol crystals.
- Visually inspect the container before preparation and again before administration. Do not administer unless solution is clear, the container undamaged, and the fliptop vial seal intact.
- Crystals may form in Mannitol Injection, especially if the solution is exposed to low temperatures. If crystallization occurs, warm the vial in water at 80°C and periodically shake vigorously to dissolve the crystals. Mannitol Injection may be autoclaved at 121°C for 20 minutes at 15 psi. Cool to body temperature or less before administering. Re-inspect Mannitol Injection for crystals prior to administration. Discard the solution if all the crystals cannot be dissolved.
- Remove cover from fliptop vial and cleanse stopper with antiseptic before use.
- Additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist, if available.
- For single use only; discard unused portion.
2.2 Recommended Dosage
Prior to administration of Mannitol Injection, evaluate renal, cardiac, and pulmonary status of the patient and correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances.
The total dosage, concentration, and rate of administration depend on the age, weight, and condition of the patient being treated, including fluid requirement, electrolyte balance, serum osmolality, urinary output, and concomitant therapy.
The following outline of administration and dosage is only a general guide to therapy.
Reduction of Intracranial Pressure and Treatment of Cerebral Edema
Usually a maximum reduction in intracranial pressure can be achieved with a dose of 0.25 g/kg administered as an intravenous infusion over at least 30 minutes, which may be repeated every six to eight hours. During and following infusion of Mannitol Injection, monitor fluid and electrolytes, serum osmolarity, and renal, cardiac, and pulmonary function. Discontinue Mannitol Injection if renal, cardiac, or pulmonary status worsens or CNS toxicity develops [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5)].
Reduction of Intraocular Pressure
The recommended dosage is 1.5 to 2 g/kg as a single dose administered as an intravenous infusion over at least 30 minutes. When used preoperatively, administer Mannitol Injection 60 to 90 minutes before surgery to achieve maximal reduction of intraocular pressure before operation.